Monday, April 25, 2011

Beef Stew for Dave

My good friend Dave was turning 26 and a celebration was in order. Instead of dropping a lot of money at a restaurant, we decided that a home-cooked meal would be best. Dave is one of my favorite people to cook with and a very good chef himself, so I wanted to be sure to deliver a meal to remember. He has requested beef stew with mashed potatoes and brussel sprouts, and I obliged. The plan was to meet around 5 in Williamsburg for some drinks and oysters and then head to my place for dinner.

I picked up the ingredients from Whole Foods and rushed to get the stew on so that it would have enough time to cook before we met up for drinks. I wanted to do a classic beef stew, so I got about 4 lbs of stew beef, carrots, cipolini onion, mushrooms, red wine and beef broth. For the potatoes, I wanted to do a horseradish and chive mash, to give a nice tangy flavor as a counter to the warm and hearty stew. I picked up 4 lbs of yukon golds, some chives, greek yogurt, and horseradish. For the vegetable, I grabbed 4 lbs of brussel sprouts.

With my very heavy bag of groceries in tow, I headed home to get cooking. I cut up the carrots into thin discs, sliced the mushrooms, peeled the cipolinis and cut up some garlic. Once my vegetable prep was done, I salt and peppered the meat and browned it in batches so that I didn't overcrowd the pot. Once the meat was browned, I poured off the fat and sauteed the vegetables until they were starting to brown. I added the meat back in, tied up a bunch of thyme and bay leaf, and covered everything with about half a bottle of malbec and 4 cups of beef broth. I brought the pot to a low boil, covered it and put it in the oven at 375 for about 2 hours (taking off the cover for the last 45 minutes to let it thicken.)

For the potatoes, I peeled the yukons and put them in a large pot of boiling water. I boiled them for about 15 minutes until tender, drained them (saving a little of the water) and mashed them up. I added in about a cup of greek yogurt, 2 tablespoons of horseradish, 1 tablespoon of butter, salt and pepper. I then used a hand blender to make the mash very smooth, and once it was smooth and rich, I added in about half a cup of chopped chives.

For the brussel sprouts, I cut the rough base stem and then sliced them in half. I tossed them in olive oil, salt and pepper and cooked them for 35 minutes at 375 until they were brown on top.

The meal turned out great. We shared a nice bottle of Belgian style beer and laughed the night away while we enjoyed the meal. One thing I did realize is that beef stew is very difficult to photograph in an appetizing way. Despite the aesthetics, the dish was beautifully balanced and exactly what Dave wanted for his birthday dinner!

Friday, April 22, 2011

I see that it's pasta, but where's the sauce??

In keeping with my health conscious eating, I wanted to make a healthy pasta dish that was not just wheat pasta with tomato sauce. I had some chicken sausage, a red pepper, onion, garlic, and a whole bunch of herbs. I made a simple dish that packed a lot of flavor, was very healthy (the only salt was a little from the sausage and some to taste), and was off the beaten path for a sausage pasta dish.
I started by thinly slicing the chicken sausage and sauteeing it in olive oil. Once all of the slices were browned, I set the sausage aside and added the chopped pepper and onion. Once they were cooked through, I added the sausage back in along with some garlic, chopped thyme and rosemary, and let that cook for a few minutes. While this was cooking, I boiled some whole wheat pasta. I added some chicken broth to the sausage mixture, tossed in the pasta, some parmesan and a bunch of whole basil leaves. I added a little black pepper for a little bit of spice and served. The outcome was an unexpected pasta dish that had the feeling of a puttanesca sauce without the anchovies and olives.

Trout with Very Confused Pasta

I recently went to the doctor and found out that my cholesterol is on the high side. He recommended I get rid of fatty foods and improve my overall diet. Always up for a challenge, I wanted to come up with a way to make an extremely healthy meal that was both visually and gustatorily pleasing. I chose trout for the protein as it is very high in healthy fats that increase your HDL cholesterol. For the “pasta”, I wanted something that looked like pasta but was anything but. I decided to use red chard and cut it into strips. Chard is one of my favorite greens, and it’s hearty enough to stand up to tomato sauce. For my “meatballs” I decided to try something totally new and made barley balls.
For the tomato sauce, I sauteed cherry tomatoes with some garlic, parsley, lemon, onion, tomato paste and red wine. I let it simmer until the tomatoes were falling apart and then set it aside.
To make the barley balls, I cooked barley in advance and let it cool. I then mixed it with egg, bread crumbs, salt, pepper, and some sauteed onion and garlic. I made sure the mix was thick enough to adhere during the cooking process, and constructed my barley balls. Once I had the balls, I put them in the freezer for 15 minutes to let them set. Once they were cold and solid, I heated canola oil (also very good for you) and browned the outsides of the barley balls. The result was a crispy on the outside, soft on the inside ball that had a heartiness similar to meatballs.
For the trout, I floured it with a little salt and pepper and then pan seared each side until golden. I used the crispy trout as the base, places a pile of chard “pasta” on top of that, added 2 barley “meatballs” and topped with the tomato sauce and some parm.
All together, the meal was reminiscent of a fine Italian pasta dish with a very healthy and unexpected twist. The barley balls turned out perfectly and were delicious to eat even on their own. Now that I’m being more conscious about what I’m eating, I’m looking forward to having more meals that are as fun and inventive as this one.

Empty Fridge? Breakfast Challenge!!!

Sunday morning: Your mission, if you choose to accept, is to create a delicious breakfast using only the food currently in your kitchen. Your available supplies include: 4 eggs, polenta, parmesan, celery, garlic, herbs, tomato sauce, bacon. Good luck!
With only the above ingredients, I was able to make the following brunch:

I started by braising the celery. I sliced it and then sauteed it in a saucepan until starting to brighten in color. I then added the garlic, bay leaf, and thyme. After about a minute, I put enough water to cover the celery, added some salt and pepper, and let it braise for about 15 minutes. While the celery braised, I made some creamy parmesan polenta. Once the braising liquid was almost cooked off, I added some tomato paste, mixed, and then added tomato sauce, parsley, and basil. I let the sauce simmer for about 10 minutes, cooked some bacon, and baked the eggs in the oven for 10 minutes.
Once everything was done, I plated the dish and enjoyed a successful breakfast challenge!

Cassoulet in the Mountains

While visiting my sister in Aspen along with Heath and my cousins Adam and Stephanie, I wanted to cook a great meal for everyone to celebrate our trip. I wanted to cook something hearty and warming in the cold Colorado air; something that would refill us after a solid weekend of skiing. I decided on making a cassoulet with crispy braised chicken legs with a kale caesar salad. I picked up 6 chicken legs, 3 cans cannellini beans, bulk chorizo, fennel, onion, parsley, diced canned tomatoes, garlic, some white wine, and bay leaves. To cook the cassoulet, I diced the onion and sauteed it in a large saucepan. I added the garlic after a few minutes, and once the onions began to get translucent, I added the chorizo to brown it and cook through. Once the chorizo was cooked through, I added the beans (drained) and the can of tomatoes and some chopped parsley. I added a little salt, pepper, bay leaf, crushed red pepper, and a little bit of sugar and let the pot simmer for 45 minutes on low to cook through and let the flavors expand.While the cassoulet cooked, I prepped the chicken by patting it with paper towel and rubbing salt and pepper over it. In a large dutch oven, I heated some olive oil on medium high, and in batches, browned the chicken skin side down for about 5 minutes, and then flipped and cooked for about 1-2 minutes. Once the chicken was browned, I set aside. I drained most of the fat from the dutch oven and added the sliced fennel and onion. Once the fennel and onion became translucent, I added garlic, white wine, and bay leaf. I added the chicken back in in one layer, skin side up, and put the pot covered in the oven at 375 for about 25 minutes. Once the chicken was cooked through, I put the cassoulet in large bowls, served the chicken on top, and the fennel and onions on top of that. I added a little parsley garnish on top as well.

For the kale caesar, the key is making a good dressing. For the kale, I steamed it for a few minutes until it’s starting to wilt. I tossed the kale with a little salt and set aside in a large salad bowl. For the dressing, I used a small food processor and mixed 2 garlic cloves, dijon mustard, an egg yolk, and 2 chopped anchovy filets until smooth and combined. I then added lemon juice, red wine vinegar, worcestershire, and a dash of tobasco and mixed until that is fully combined. I then added olive oil while stirring to emulsify. The result is a creamy, tangy caesar dressing. I cooked the leftover egg white in a small sautee pan, mixed that with the kale, tossed the salad with the dressing and added some croutons.
The trip was awesome, amazing skiing, fun stories, great meals. This meal was a really special way to finish the trip up, and we all had a great time.

A Fittingly Colored Valentine's Day Meal

I’m not a big fan of going out to dinner on Valentine’s Day because most restaurants jack up the price of their prix fixe menu and I just don’t have that much money to toss around. This year I decided to come up with the most festive menu I could think of and the first thing that popped into my head: BEETS. I love beets on their own, but my girlfriend isn’t a huge fan of them, so I thought of a way to incorporate their beautiful color without featuring beets alone on the menu: pink mashed potatoes! To go along with the Valentine spuds, I made sautéed red chard (sensing a theme?), and featured some sizable veal chops with balsamic apples. The meal turned out really well and was good to look at and even better to eat.
2 ½ lb Veal Chops on the bone
2 Fuji or Pink Lady apples
1 tsp grated ginger
1 tsp grated jalapeno flesh
1 lemon
1 tsp agave or honey
2 tbsp balsamic
.5 lb red potatoes
1 large beet
2 tbsp butter
¼ cup milk
1 large bunch red chard
3 garlic cloves (chopped)
2 tbsp olive oil
To cook!
Pink Potatoes:
1) Boil the beet in a large enough pot to hold the beet and the potatoes
2) After 20 minutes, add the potatoes and boil for another 15 until the beet and potatoes are fork tender
3) Melt the butter in a small pan and slowly cook half of the chopped garlic until browned
4) Drain the pot (reserving a little bit of the water) and take out the beet to remove skin
5) Mash the potatoes with the reserved water, the milk, and the garlic butter
6) Cut the beet into small pieces, add to the potatoes, and mash (I had small chunks of beet in the mash, but feel free to use a hand blender to make the mash smoother)
7) Add salt and pepper to taste
Red Chard
1) Coarsely chop the chard into 1 inch strips
2) Heat 1 tbsp of olive oil in a large pan and sautée the remaining chopped garlic
3) Once garlic starts to brown add the chard and toss in the oil and garlic
4) Add ½ lemon juice and cook until chard is fully wilted
Balsamic Apples:
1) Chop the apples into small rectangles and sautée in a saucepan in olive oil
2) Mix the grated ginger and jalapeno with juice of ½ a lemon and the honey/agave
3) Pour the dressing and half of the balsamic over the apples and simmer until the apples are very soft
Veal Chops:
1) Preheat the oven to 375
2) Sear the veal on both sides in an oven proof pan or cast iron
3) Finish in the oven for 15 minutes
4) Serve apples on the veal and finish with the remaining balsamic

Miso Cod for Ray

My girlfriend’s father, Ray, was in town last week for a concert, and he stayed in the city an extra night to see me and our friends for a dinner. As usual, I offered up my cooking services for the evening. Ray doesn’t eat any meat or shellfish, so I wanted to make an interesting and delicious fish dish that was outside of the usual types of seafood dishes I put together. I’m a huge fan of Asian food. I love the mix of salty, spicy, and sweet flavors that are often featured in Asian dishes and create that great sense of umami (or savoriness). I decided to do a play on miso soup. I made a dashi broth (fish stock) and marinated cod in a miso glaze along with sauteed bok choi greens and shitake mushrooms. When all three components were eaten in one bite, you got the sensation of eating miso soup with the strong saltiness of the dashi mixing with the sweetness of the miso glaze on the fish (which took the place of the tofu) and the warmth of the greens and mushrooms. I also made some vegetable fried rice on the side to add some heartiness of the meal. The rice actually worked well with the dashi and fish, so a few people at the table actually mixed the rice in with everything else. Everyone was so excited to eat that I forgot to take a picture of the complete dish, but fortunately I had one extra portion (which I ate once I got my pic…) The meal ended up being a great setting for Ray’s endlessly entertaining stories, and we all had a great time.
Miso Cod in a Dashi Broth with Bok Choi and Shitake

1/3-1/2 lb of Cod per person
1 head of bok choi
5-6 shitake mushrooms
sesame seeds
3/4 cup white miso
3/4 cup sake
3/4 cup mirin
1/2 cup sugar
2 pieces dried kelp
1/2 cup bonito flakes
1/2 cup soy sauce
3 cups water

To Cook!

Bring water to a boil and add kelp. Reduce to a simmer and add bonito flakes, let simmer for 20-30 minuted until broth is very fragrant, taste to make sure it is strong enough for your liking. Strain the broth over cheesecloth or paper towel, add the soy sauce and stir. Add more soy if the broth isn’t salty enough.

Bok choi and shitake mushrooms:
Slice the mushrooms and the greens of the bok choi into very thin strips (reserve the bok choi stalks for another use, perhaps a stir fry or fried rice). Heat oil in a wok or frying pan on medium high and add the mushrooms when hot. When the mushrooms start to brown, add the greens and sautee until wilted. Add the sesame seeds, a little of the extra miso glaze and toss until coated. Add salt and pepper to taste.

Miso Glazed Cod:
Bring sake and mirin to a boil and boil for 1 minute to burn off alcohol. Reduce to a simmer and add miso and stir until fully incorporated and smooth. Add sugar and stir until fully dissolved, set aside and let cool. Once cooled, pour the glaze over the fish and marinate overnight in a plastic bag. When ready to cook, remove the fish and wipe away the glaze with a paper towel (don’t wash off). Broil the fish until golden on top and finish in the oven until flaky.

To serve use wide bowls, place the fish in the bowl, pour enough dashi to cover the bottom of the bowl over the fish and place the mushrooms and greens on top. Serve with fried rice or udon noodles to add heartiness.

Family Style Dinner!

Sunday nights are generally pretty lazy, but on the night before President’s day, there’s nothing better than spending time with friends and sharing laughs and a good comforting meal. All of my friends are always busy, always all over the place, so it’s great when we can all get together and spend some quality time. I invited everyone over for dinner and wanted to make a delicious family style meal. I decided on tangy tomato crispy chicken legs and thighs with mac and cheese and red chard (my favorite green du jour). I spend much of the weekend browsing cookbooks, and came across a mouthwatering recipe for mac and cheese in an awesome cookbook my lovely girlfriend gave me for my birthday: The New Brooklyn Cookbook. I recommend this cookbook for anyone who loves Brooklyn restaurants (or delectable pictures of food and restaurants…) While I was cooking everything, my back started KILLING me. I wanted to make sure the meal turned out well, so I ended up cooking the whole thing half hunched over and in some pretty bad pain, but THE SHOW MUST GO ON!! It probably wasn’t the best idea because I spent all of Monday lying down, but in the end it was worth it for a delicious meal with great friends. The mac and cheese ended up being the best I ever made, and the chicken came out great. We had a lot of laughs and enjoyed spending time together.

Tangy Tomato Crispy Chicken with Mac and Cheese and Red Chard

Chicken thighs and legs (I estimated 2-3 pieces per person)
1 can whole peeled tomatoes
5 garlic cloves (3 for the sauce and 2 for the chard)
3/4 cup of bourbon
1/2 cup molasses
1/4 cup cider vinegar
1/4 cup sugar or agave
1 tbsp dijon
1 orange
4 cups whole milk
1/2 cup heavy cream
1/2 lb or cheddar and 1/2 lb of gruyere shredded
3 pieces of thick slab bacon
1 lb elbow pasta
1/2 cup flour
1 stick butter
bread crumbs
3 bunches of red chard
olive oil

To Cook!

Tangy Tomato Sauce (It was a cross between a tomato sauce and a bbq sauce):
Chop the onion, carrot, celery, jalapeno and garlic. Heat oil in a heavy bottom pot and sautee the first 4 veggies, once they start to become translucent, add the garlic. Zest the orange and add to the pot along with the bourbon and juice from the orange. let the bourbon boil for a minute so the alcohol burns off, then add the can of tomatoes, molasses, mustard and vinegar. Once the mixture is simmering, add the sugar, salt and pepper and stir through. Use a hand blender to puree the sauce and let simmer, covered, for about 20-30 minutes. Set aside and let cool.

Crispy Chicken:
Brine the chicken in a salt solution and pat dry with paper towel, cutting off any extra skin from the thighs. Using a spoon, put a spoonful of sauce under the skin of the chicken and pat down to spread around. Salt and pepper the outside of the chicken and heat oil or bacon fat in a cast iron skillet. In batched, sear the chicken skin side down (about 4 minutes) then flip for one minute and move to a pan. Once all of the chicken is browned, cook in a 400 degree oven for 20 minutes to cook through.

Mac and Cheese:
Boil water in a pot and cook the elbows until al dente. Drain, toss with olive oil and set aside to cool. Slice the bacon into thin pieces and cook in a cast iron (I did this before cooking the chicken and used the fat to brown the chicken). Remove when the bacon is browned and move to a plate with paper towel. In a saucepan, bring the milk and cream to a simmer. In a heavy bottom pot, melt the butter and add the flour, stirring constantly to make a golden roux (about 4 minutes). Slowly add the milk.cream and stir constantly to incorporate while scraping the bottom to make sure the flour doesn’t burn. Once the mixture is smooth, add half of the cheese and stir frequently until cheese is melted. In a large glass dish, put the elbows and cover with the sauce, mixing so that the sauce gets on all of the elbows and throughout the dish. Sprinkle the remaining cheese on top of the pasta and then the bread crumb. Cook in a 400 degree oven for 20 minutes, until bubbling and finish in a broiler for 3 minutes to brown the top.

Red Chard:
Coarsely chop the chard into 1 inch strips. Heat 1 tbsp of olive oil in a large pan and sautée the remaining chopped garlic. Once garlic starts to brown add the chard and toss in the oil and garlic. Add ½ lemon juice and cook until chard is fully wilted.

Braised Moroccan Pork Ribs

I was in the mood for something braised and warm on a cold winter’s night. I was thinking Osso Bucco, but it was too expensive, so I decided on braised Moroccan pork ribs. I decided this in Whole Foods, so I had to wing the ingredients based on my knowledge of Moroccan flavors. I wanted the sweetness of apricots and saltiness of olives to come through and compliment the rich fatty flavor of the ribs. Rather than typical bbq or roasted ribs, I wanted to have the warm stew-like feeling of braised meat. I got home and got to cooking. I threw a bunch of spices that reminded me of Mediterranean flavors and got the ribs braised. The pork worked perfectly with the spices and the braising liquid was a great accompaniment on top of the potatoes. The kale offered a nice change of texture from the pork and mash, and the whole meal almost made me forget there was a couple feet of snow outside. If you don’t want to make the potato parsnip mash, the dish would work really well over polenta, couscous or another fine grain.

Braised Moroccan Pork Ribs over Parsnip and Potato Mash with Crispy Kale
1.5 lbs St. Louis Pork Ribs
1 tbsp each of cumin, pepper, coriander, mustard seed, cinnamon, turmeric, sugar and salt (if you have extra, save it for another use)
1 carrot
1 yellow onion
3 garlic cloves
2-3 cups of chicken broth (enough to cover ribs)
Cinnamon stick
2 bay leaves
1 lemon sliced
1 cup olives
1 cup Turkish dried apricots
2 tbsp honey
1 lb potatoes
½ lb parsnip
Salt Pepper
Olive Oil
To Cook!
Spice Mix:
Mix cumin, pepper, coriander, mustard seed, cinnamon, turmeric, sugar and salt and grind in a mortar and pestle or spice grinder until fine.
Pork ribs:
Coat the ribs in the spice mix and sear both sides. Add the carrots, onion and garlic around the ribs, stirring so that they don’t burn while the ribs sear. Add the broth to cover it along with a little more spice mix, the cinnamon stick, bay leaves, lemon slices, olives, apricots and honey. Braise for 1.5 hours until ribs are just falling off the bone.
Potato and parsnip mash:
Bring water to a boil, add salt and boil the potatoes and parsnips and boil for 10 minutes until they are fork tender. Strain, reserving a little of the boiling liquid and mash them. Add salt, pepper, milk, and butter and mash until very smooth.
Crispy Kale:
Preheat oven to 350. Wash kale and dry thoroughly with paper towel. Massage the leaves with olive oil, and put in the oven for about 8 minutes until lightly browned and crispy. Toss with salt and serve on top or on the side of the ribs.

Heath's Birthday Chicken Marsala

My friend Heath, was turning 26 and starting a new job the next day, and I wanted to throw together a nice meal to celebrate. I decided on chicken marsala over egg noodles with a nice salad on the side. I bought 4 boneless, skinless chicken breasts, a sliced mushroom mix, marsala wine, and egg noodles. Once I got home, I flattened the chicken and dredged the cutlets in flour mixed with oregano, thyme, crushed red pepper, salt, and pepper. I browned them in my cast iron and set them aside. While my water boiled, I sauteed the mushrooms and an a diced onion in the cast iron. Once they were browned, I added fresh thyme and the marsala. I let it cook down for a few minutes to burn off the alcohol, and then added the chicken cutlets. I let the entire dish cook for about 5 minutes to finish the chicken and thicken the sauce. Once the egg noodles were done, I tossed them in olive oil and served the chicken marsala on top with some parm to top it off.

The meal was delicious, and Heath appreciated it despite being extremely tired from a weekend of celebration. I had some leftovers as well, so when I reheated them, I tossed them in the cast iron with some olive oil, a little more marsala and a good handful of parmesan. The leftovers were delicious, a little richer than the original dish, but it ended up being a delicious 2 for 1 dish!

Sunday Steak

Sunday evening and I was craving some beef. I picked up a nice big ribeye from the WF meat counter, some asparagus, and some fingerling potatoes. I didn’t want a big involved meal to cook, but was definitely feeling a hearty and comforting dish. When I got home, I salt and peppered the steak and let it sit until I was ready to cook it. I sliced the potatoes in half, tossed them with 5 garlic cloves, olive oil, salt, pepper and paprika and put them in the oven (all sliced side down) at 375. I tossed the asparagus with olive oil, salt, pepper and lemon and added them to the oven about 15 minutes after the potatoes. I usually cook my potatoes for about 45 minutes, so I wanted the asparagus to be nicely roasted for 30. I heated up the grill pan tossed a little olive oil on it. Once the oil was almost smoking, I added the ribeye. I cooked it about 7 minutes a side to a nice medium rare. The steak sit for about 10 minutes, and once the potatoes and asparagus were done, I put it all on a plate and enjoyed this classic meal. It was the perfect dish for a Sunday night, and a great way to end the weekend.

These Are a Few of Devon's Favorite Things

After a long Friday, I was in the mood to do some damage in the kitchen. Devon, my girlfriend, was feeling a little down after having to stay in the office late, so I decided to gather up some of her favorite items for a surprise cheer-up dinner. I went to Whole Foods with a bit of a plan, but as I often do, I just went with the flow. While walking by the fish section, I saw a huge round fish that had just been butchered. I wasn’t familiar with the fish by sight, so I asked the fish counter what it was. I learned that the fish was called Opah, native of Hawaii, and it was similar to Tuna. I was very intrigued by the fish, so I took a gorgeous cut of the cheek meat (they told me this was the most tender). They also told me that the fish was best served seared and very rare. Upon hearing this, my mind was aflutter with ideas. I grabbed a dozen oysters from the fish counter, and ventured off to construct my vision. I wanted to feature the fish, so I decided to make a “deconstructed sushi”. I picked up some kale in place of the seaweed, some sushi rice, and some cilantro for a marinade for the fish. I also grabbed a shallot to make a mignonette to go with the oysters, some robusto (her favorite cheese), and a bunch of red gerber daisies, Devon’s favorite flower.

I got home and prepped the fish by rubbing it with olive oil, chopped cilantro and some salt and pepper. I set that aside, and made a mignonette and some cocktail sauce for the oysters. For the mignonette, I finely diced the shallot and mixed it with pepper and red wine vinegar. For the cocktail sauce, I mixed ketchup, horseradish, lemon, and pepper. Once my sauces were made, I shucked the oysters (very efficiently!) and put the half shells on ice.

For the rest of the Opah plate, I cooked the sushi rice, adding a little rice vinegar and sugar to make it sticky. I then cut the spine of the kale out, sliced the kale into about 1 inch slices and sauteed it with lemon, garlic, some toasted sesame oil and a bit of mirin. For the sauce, I mixed mayonnaise with wasabi and sriracha chili and it tasted exactly like the spicy mayo used in spicy tuna rolls.Devon came home to flowers, a nice hors d’oeuvres spread of oysters and cheese and the Opah. The meal was a complete success and everything worked perfectly together. Assembling a bite with fish, kale, rice, and spicy mayo made you think you were eating a spicy tuna roll. The fish had a similar flavor to tuna, but was much more delicate and tender. I will definitely buy Opah again if I see it at the fish counter.